Biofuel- Cellulosic Ethanol-Venkatesh Subramanian
Department of Biotechnology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-627012, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail address: email@example.com
Developing technologies that can convert cellulosic materials into motor fuels has been a goal of government and private industry for three decades. Several primary drivers underlies the increasing interests in biofuels, such as increasing uncertainty of petroleum supplies due to rising demand, decline in known reserves, and concerns over global warming and green house gas emissions associated with fossil fuels usage and this has led to various government programs promoting biofuels. Cellulosic ethanol can make a substantial contribution to the future energy needs and is projected to be even more eco- friendly than first-generation biofuels, with the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 85% compared to gasoline. Current production of cellulosic ethanol relies on ethanol from starch and sugars but there has been considerable debate about its sustainability. In this context, bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is an interesting alternative since lignocellulosic raw materials do not compete with food crops and they are also less expensive than conventional agricultural feedstocks. To make industrial lignocellulosic bioconversion more economically feasible, it is necessary to choose microorganisms capable of hydrolyzing cellulose and fermenting glucose in to ethanol. However, to make cellulosic ethanol economically viable, our immediate research priorities need to be to lower the cost and improve the effectiveness of cellulases and to develop pretreatment technologies compatible with an optimized, integrated process, especially downstream enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Genetic improvement of organisms and processes for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol has the potential to increase efficiency and reduce the costs of fuel ethanol to that or less than petroleum. The main objective of our research is to develop a recombinant strain for producing cellulosic ethanol production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) at industrial level.